Associate Professor Biplab Sikdar
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering
National University of Singapore
Mr Colin Sampson
Senior Vice President/Board Advisor & SAP Ambassador Customer Engagement, M&A, Venture Capital
SAP Asia Pte Ltd
Mr Jonathan Wright
Asia Pacific Partner, Advisory Service
Ernst & Young Advisory Pte Ltd
Professor Chua Kee Chaing
Dean, Faculty of Engineering
National University of Singapore
Mr Saj Kumar
Vice President, Digital Transformation and Internet of Things (IoT)
SAP Asia Pacific and Japan
Dr Lee Shiang Long
President, ST Kinetics
Cities across the globe are growing at a rapid pace. The increase in population density, human expectations of better economic and social lives, and technological and environmental changes have made the planning and governance of cities of the future an issue of extreme importance. As cities strive to maintain their economic growth and provide the civic infrastructure to its residents and businesses, they increasingly have to contend with limited resources, budgetary constraints, and external factors such as climate change. Technological advances, and emerging business, ownership, and service models present a unique opportunity to realize a vision for future cities where resources are used optimally, new avenues for economic growth and employment are created, and the overall quality of life of the residents is improved.
These advancements in technology are creating cities that are “connected”. Such cities allow easy access to data and information, make extensive use of computing and information technologies in the operation of its physical infrastructure as well as social services, and in its economy and industries. However, technology is not a silver-bullet solution for the transformation to a connected city. A roadmap that holistically addresses the necessary infrastructure, governance and policy aspects, economic and social factors, is needed for ensuring a sustainable and resilient transformation to a connected city.
This white paper describes the vision for a connected city and its salient features. Considering its unique characteristics and using insights from ongoing worldwide efforts at transforming cities, a roadmap for the future of Singapore as a connected city is also presented. Singapore’s transformation is expected to benefit from the development of a holistic ecosystem that supports the endeavors of various stakeholders in the development and adoption of latest technological advancements, fostering closer public-private partnerships, investing in large scale projects, and investing in the close involvement of its citizens in the planning, decision making, and feedback process.
Over much of the history of mankind on this earth, human population has primarily lived in rural environments. Less than 5% of the global human population lived in cities in the 18th century, and the overwhelming majority of people were engaged in agricultural activities. Urban societies, where a large fraction of the population lives in cities, have only emerged in the 19th and 20th centuries. This was facilitated by the advent of the industrial age where mechanization helped to reduce the need for manual labor in agriculture, thereby allowing farm workers to move to cities in search of a better life. Even a city-state such as Singapore has gone through various stages of urbanization. Starting as a free port in the 19th century, Singapore’s economy was dominated by maritime trade till the second world war. Since independence, rapid urbanization of Singapore was accomplished through industrialization, public housing projects, and infrastructure development.
The steady pace of technological advancements over the last two centuries has ensured that urban areas have continuously evolved to accommodate the growing demands of its residents. The major challenges for cities and urban areas (including those in developing and developed nations) today include high population density, inadequate infrastructure, lack of affordable housing, environmental issues such as pollution and flooding, slum creation, crime, congestion, and poverty [KM12]. In the context of developed nations and particularly in the context of Singapore, sustained economic growth, catering to changing demographics and a graying population, and ensuring the competitiveness of its workforce and industry are some of the pressing challenges. One of the promising technological advancements with the potential to address many of these challenges is information and communication technologies. Integrating automated information generation, processing, and storage techniques in industries and businesses can enhance productivity and competiveness. Such techniques are also increasingly being used by civic organizations and city governments in their daily operations, as well as for interacting with the citizens. Logistics, public transportation, energy and water services, and other utilities and public services are also part of this move towards increased use of computing and communication technologies for operational activities, resulting in energy and cost savings, greener and sustainable operations, improved security and safety, etc. We call an urban environment where computing, and information and communication technologies have permeated all aspects of life a “connected city”.
Connected cities promise many things for future urban environments. In fact, there are many ongoing efforts around the world to develop connected cities (or pockets of capability), and the pace of their development is expected to increase. Many of the solutions for connected cities are based on the integration of information processing and computing technologies to make systems more efficient. The Internet-of-things (IoT) is often highlighted as a solution to many of the challenges facing various aspects of modern cities. However, the guiding principles for urban development should be rooted on meeting the needs of its citizens, and ensuring a sustainable economic growth. In this white paper, we highlight the possible impact of connected cities on the economic and social aspects of future urban environments, with emphasis on the Singaporean context. We also present recommendations for a pathway for fully exploiting the potential benefits of a connected city. We do note that many of the ideas presented in this whitepaper and what is currently envisioned at the moment is naturally based on automating the old. One can expect that these ideas will be challenged and consumed by ideas based on future technological developments.
The increase in the popularity of network based services such as the world wide web, social media, and electronic commerce has been fueled by the development of communication and networking technologies. As these network based services become ingrained in our daily lives due to the convenience and empowerment they provide, the benefits that information and computing systems can bring to other aspects of a civic society have become apparent. The access to real-time information and the ability to process it, learn from it, and use it to make decisions can significantly change the way many businesses and civic services are operated. The primary motivating factors for incorporating these technologies is to reduce operational costs, improve efficiency and raise performance, and better customer service, to name a few.
However, the concept of a connected city extends beyond the traditional notion of improved performance and profit margins for utilities and businesses. For example, one of the integral parts of a connected city is the empowerment of its citizens to play a more active role in their communities, such as engaging in civic decision making process, adopting sustainable and heathy lifestyles, engaging in community activities etc. Similarly, a connected city should provide its citizens with attractive (aesthetically and economically) locations to live and work, and help to drive the engines of economic growth and providing continued employment opportunities. Thus, a holistic view of a connected city includes the underlying technological aspects, its impact on the economy, industries and services, and its impact on the society.
A transformation of an urban area to a connected city can be motivated by a number of factors. These include:
1. Economic factors: Computing and data are changing the face of the economy. The integration of computing, networking and physical processes are revolutionizing traditional industries such as manufacturing, and creating new ones such as those based on a sharing economy (e.g. Uber and Airbnb). Technological advances in the areas of artificial intelligence, autonomous robots, big data and analytics, the Industrial Internet of Things, are some of the factors that are contributing to this change. This transformation can be disruptive (e.g. job losses), but they also hold great potential in terms of ushering in new ways to increase productivity, lower costs, and also create new jobs.
2. Growth and modernization of urban infrastructure: Growing economies create new employment opportunities. Supporting such economic growth requires a work force with the necessary skills, which often leads to population migration. Coupled with natural population growth, this rising population results in increased pressure on the infrastructure. Without the necessary infrastructure to cater to the requirements of both the human population as well as the industries, the potential for growth is limited. Along with physical infrastructure such as transportation, utilities, educational and medical facilities, cyber infrastructure in the form of data centers and communication networks are also critical components of a modern city.
3. Concerns about sustainability and climate change: The physical infrastructure of a city such as its buildings, roads and subway systems, and open spaces are some of the most valuable assets. However, these assets are increasingly being subjected to adverse conditions (e.g. increased sea levels, wind storms, and flooding) linked to climate change, and such incidents are expected to increase in the coming years. Keeping the critical services and supplies (e.g. food procurement and distribution, energy, water, and communication services) secure against any disruption is another important factor to consider as cities modernize. Cities also have to ensure that their development meets the sustainability requirements (e.g. in the use of energy and natural resources such as water) while ensuring greater efficiencies and convenience.
4. Ageing population and changing demographics: The global population of the elderly is increasing rapidly and by 2050, there will be more people above the age of 65 than below the age of 15 [UN15]. An ageing population has significantly different housing, transport, and social needs, and as a result, cities will need to adapt. The changing demographics also affects the industries and businesses in terms of their ability to recruit the manpower they need in order to run their operations. By ensuring that the architecture, infrastructure, and services provided by the city accommodate the needs of older populations, cities can ensure that its senior citizens lead fulfilling and productive lives.
5. Human aspirations: An equitable and comfortable life with access to basic services (e.g. transportation, water, and electricity), clean environment, safety and security, and employment opportunities are basic human aspirations that a city has to provide. Providing a high quality of life while simultaneously maintaining economic competitiveness and protecting the natural environment is a challenging task, often with conflicting requirements. Cities of the future will have to address these concerns and increasingly rely on modern technologies for solutions, not only to increase the intelligence of its socio-economic systems so that resources are used optimally, but also to ensure their long-term sustainability and competitiveness.
The scale of these challenges and their broad range means that cities have to rethink their strategies in order to meet the needs of its residents. Innovations and paradigm shifts are needed across all domains, and technology will be one of the main drivers of such solutions. The integration of communication and computing technologies in a city’s vital components to form a connected city is the most promising vision for addressing these challenges. In order to become a connected city, a wide ranging set of transformations are required at various levels. These transformations and the innovations and advancements they provide in various areas are as follows:
1. Economy: The ongoing transformation of the economy, particularly in developed countries, is driven by information and knowledge. Harnessing the economic potential of a connected city requires a city to reinvent itself into an entity that is connected, smart, and whose citizenry has the necessary skills to adapt to the changing environment. Much of the economy of a connected city will revolve around the use of smart technologies, and these economies require an investment in the intellect and creativity of people, flexibility of the labor market, and an environment that encourages entrepreneurship. Thus, connected cities will create new economic and employment opportunities, many of which will require a workforce with skills revolving around computing and information technologies.
2. Infrastructure, environment, and sustainability: A city’s connectivity comes from its local, national and international accessibility. Traditionally, this connectivity has been through the surface, water, and air based transportation. With the addition of information and communication networks to this infrastructure, the connectivity of a city also includes the movement of information, not only between commercial entities, but also between the government and the citizens. While a city’s infrastructure is important for its growth and economic viability, its environmental impact and sustainability is a concern. The natural conditions, pollution levels, and sustainable resource management of a city, play a crucial role in attracting businesses and residents, and these aspects stand to benefit from the integration of physical and cyber worlds in a connected city. The integration of information and computational technologies to traditional power grids, water supply systems etc. leads to lower wastage and operating costs, and helping to achieve the objectives of sustainability.
3. Governance and public services: Technology is changing the interaction between a city’s government and its citizens. These changes affect the way public and social services are conducted or accessed by cities, allow citizens to be more involved in the decision-making process, and promote transparency in governance. For example, healthcare and care for the elderly are prime examples of public services that stand to experience significant changes with the inclusion of technical advancements. Governance in a connected city can develop and exploit new forms of collaboration and communication through the use of information technology, resulting in better outcomes and more open governance processes. However, governance in a connected city is not a purely technological issue and involves a number of social factors. Governance in a connected city may require a radical rethink of deeply embedded institutional policies and a process of gradual deployment of socio-technical changes.
4. Social and human factors: A connected and smart city cannot achieve its full potential unless it takes the human factors (including social, psychological, ethical, and cultural factors) into consideration. Cities should serve the interests of their residents, and a connected city exploits technology to allow its citizens to reach their full potential, and live comfortable and fulfilling lives. Educational institutions and programs for workforce development and life-long learning are also important to ensure that the inhabitants can take full advantage of the services and opportunities offered by connected cities. In addition, outreach efforts that highlight the benefits of modern technical advances on the society are needed to ensure that the city’s residents embrace the services and features of a connected city. Towards this end, engagement of technology in the city’s operation and services should be motivated by the needs of its residents, and its success depends on the social, economic, behavioral factors that influence human acceptance of change.
5. Cyber and Physical Security: The digital transformation and the interconnection of virtual and physical infrastructure that is central to the development of connected cities also brings with it new and substantial cybersecurity risks. The large number of devices, and their diversity in terms of resources and computing capabilities leads to a broad threat landscape that includes traditional as well as targeted attack techniques, including but not limited to malware, remote execution, signal jamming, data manipulation and distributed denial of service (DDOS) attacks. Thus, connected cities should incorporate comprehensive strategies to safeguard its critical infrastructure, ensure the continued operation of its government, financial, and industrial organizations, and ensure the privacy of individual information. In addition to cyber-threats, connected cities are also increasingly vulnerable to physical threats such as terrorism and organized crime. Technology is expected to be a key player in addressing these security threats, for example, by using communication tools that facilitate community based intelligence reports, data mining and analytics techniques that can identify potential attacks, notification services in case of emergencies, and the use of digital evidence.
6. Healthcare: In addition to the fundamental objectives of improving civic infrastructure, enhancing efficiency, and fostering innovation in different industries, an equally important objective of a connected city is to improve the quality of life for its citizens. Improved healthcare forms a cornerstone of the push towards improved quality of life. The high-tech ecosystem in a connected city that includes data collection from multiple sources (including individuals through on-body sensors), storage, and analytics, the city’s infrastructure can provide the insights and information its citizens need to enhance their well-being. While modern medicine continues to benefit from technological advances in computing and information sciences, these advances may also be used to influence citizen towards adopting more healthy lifestyles. Such objectives will be achieved through initiatives that encourage a broader view of health and well-being in citizens, for instance by using technology for health monitoring and diagnostics that pre-empt treatment and move towards preventive medical practices.
In their present state, many of the ongoing efforts at integrating information, communication, and computing technologies in developing the cities of tomorrow are broadly classified as creating “smart cities”. Efforts at developing smart cities are becoming more prevalent all across the globe, with individual cities emphasizing certain aspects in their strategy for transforming into a smart city.
Examples of initiatives towards transforming existing cities into smart cities or develop new ones include Suwon (South Korea), Stockholm (Sweden), Gangnam District of Seoul (South Korea), Waterloo-Kitchener (Ontario, Canada), Taipei (Taiwan), Mitaka (Japan), Glasgow (Scotland, UK), Calgary (Alberta, Canada), Seoul (South Korea), New York City (USA), LaGrange (Georgia, USA), and Singapore [TSSL17].
These cities are recognized for their efforts in developing their information and communication infrastructure and exploiting them to enhance certain aspects of the city. The efforts at developing smart cities so far have been limited in their scope, and different cities have focused on specific aspects of what makes a city smart, and with different objectives in mind. In this section we elaborate on two ongoing efforts at building smart cities, with quite different objectives. These case studies will serve to highlight some of the possible approaches to developing smart and connected cities as well as identify areas that are usually overlooked.
1. Songdo, South Korea: Songdo, as part of the lncheon Free Economic Zone (IFEZ), is a smart city in South Korea whose development started in 2008 and is still ongoing. The guiding philosophy behind the project is to build and provide citizens with a living environment that is convenient, pleasant, and healthy. The project has six focus areas: transportation, crime and security, disaster management, citizen interaction, environment, and smart services (related to homes, businesses, education, and healthcare) [IDB16]. Many of the specialized services in Songdo (e.g.transportation and security) utilize embedded sensor devices and video camera deployments, whose data is analyzed in real-time and visualized in an Integrated Operations Command Center, which in turn acts as a center that facilitates collaboration between various agencies and citizen engagement.
The vision and goal driving Songdo’s development is to rank number one in global city competitiveness by 2020. In order to achieve this goal, Songdo has the following core strategies:
a. Establishing and operating a smart city: To establish and operate a smart or ubiquitous city, Songdo is constructing the necessary infrastructures and connecting them to the city’s operation center through communication networks. The infrastructure includes ubiquitous RFID and sensor network technologies, city-wide CCTV deployment, motion detectors, sound recorders and monitors, and a communication mechanism for citizen interaction.
b. Developing an economically viable cooperation model with private sector services through public-private partnerships: Songdo’s model is to enhance its services by developing cooperation models with the private sector, and fund the investment and operation costs of the city by collaborating with global corporations. To sustain its development and attract foreign capital, a public-private corporation was established in 2012 in order to utilize privately owned technologies and resources.
c. Overseas outreach and promotion: The development experiences of Songdo are being developed into models that can be exported to other smart city projects across the world. In particular, the IFEZ is bidding for projects in smart city developments in China, Philippines, and the Middle East. On the side of the coin, IFEZ is also working on attracting foreign investment into the Songdo project. The main tool in this regard is in the form of financial incentives that include tax reductions, estate support, and subsidies.
d. Building high-tech clusters: The city has created mid to long term master plans to create cutting-edge technology clusters in Songdo and neighboring areas. Songdo itself has two clusters: Songdo Knowledge and Information Industrial Complex (which aims to host companies and R&D centered industrial clusters for knowledge-based industry) and Songdo New and Renewable Energy Cluster. In addition, the nearby regions of Yeongjong and Cheongna are developing clusters on aviation and automobile technologies, respectively.
The financial and management activities related to Songdo smart city initiative are managed by lncheon U-city Corporation, a private-public partnership. The city of Incheon holds 28.6% of the share in this partnership while private firms hold the rest. The partnership’s main functions are related to overseeing the construction, securing funding for system operation and management, forming an effective business model, and maximizing benefits for citizens. This public-private partnership has been one of the main success factors behind Songdo.
2. Waterloo-Kitchener, Canada: The three cities of Waterloo, Kitchener, and Cambridge make up the tri-city metropolitan region of Ontario, Canada. This region has a high concentration of tech companies (e.g. BlackBerry, OpenText, Kik, and Maplesoft) and is often referred to as “Canada’s Silicon Valley”. The leadership of this region has placed a special emphasis on the community aspect of a smart city, through the development of the Digital Kitchener Strategy [Kitc16]. The strategy calls for the city to be connected, promote innovation, provide on demand services, and prioritize the needs that the citizens want to see fulfilled. The masterplan for the smart city initiative focuses on the following areas:
a. Public services and e-government: In an effort to streamline the services it provides and cater to the growing public expectations, the Waterloo-Kitchener area is expanding the services that are available digitally, making it easy to access municipal records, and facilitate civic participation. In addition to creating e-services that are personalized to the unique interests and needs of its users, efforts are ongoing to support the city’s engagement and customer service initiatives through tech opportunities. A number of initiatives have also been undertaken to involve citizens in the decision making process or identify solutions to community challenges by consulting and/or collaborating with the public.
b. Digital inclusion: The Kitchener-Waterloo area emphasizes the need for enhanced digital literacy and access to digital services for all sections of society. The area is working towards establishing a service level standard for public technological infrastructure and Internet access across the city. It is also working towards creating opportunities to build digital literacy skills and the development of technology-enabled learning environments. Additionally, it is working with partners like the public library and other local groups to lay the framework for digital programs and standards that make it easier for everyone to access information.
c. Access and infrastructure: The masterplan calls for developing the digital infrastructure of the city (e.g. improved broadband access, public Wi-Fi networks and public innovation labs). To aid in this process, the city will open up municipal assets to service providers through the use of policy tools, and streamline processes to create new partnership opportunities for community and commercial benefit. Additionally, investments will be made for providing public Wi-Fi access, establishing a city-wide narrowband network through its LED street light conversion project, and deployment of sensors in areas such as the city’s parking, storm water and utility enterprises, and encouraging regional stakeholders to use the city as an incubator to pilot smart tech
projects of their own.
d. Encouraging innovation: Kitchener-Waterloo’s approach to encouraging innovation is to create an environment that allows people to collaborate easily and feel supported to succeed. This approach emphasizes the development of civic innovation through culture and process first, and projects second. The city is working on creating a civic innovation laboratory that will act as a forum to present municipal service challenges, and developing solutions for them locally, for example by working with post-secondary institutions.
e. An ecosystem for a digital economy: The Waterloo-Kitchener region is developing partnerships, policies and investments to encourage the transition from a traditional economy to a digital economy. One of the initiatives undertaken in this directions is the development a technology hub that fosters startups, as well as help big companies (e.g. General Motors, Canon, and Canadian Tire) to tap the expertise of startups to find new ways of doing business. Another aspect of this ecosystem is the infrastructure that allows the collection of data, and more importantly, provide hassle-free access to the data. The final component of this ecosystem is development of a pool of professionals that have the computing skills to support, develop, and exploit the opportunities resulting from the smart city initiative (e.g. through the Year of Code Waterloo region, and partnerships with groups providing computer training).
The vision for a connected Singapore is that of a thriving metropolis with economic, social, and environmental sustainability. Achieving this goal requires a holistic approach to developing the infrastructure, technologies, and human capital of the city. With the objective of integrating and exploiting information and computational technologies in various aspects of a city’s operation, the design and implementation of features such as urban planning, architecture, and infrastructure should be considered in unison, while also recognizing the influences of social issues, economic development, demographic changes, and cultural factors. It also needs to recognize that the people are the central element of the city, and all residents, regardless of age, educational background, wealth, and ethnicity, will play a critical role in the success of Singapore’s transformation to a connected city. The roadmap to becoming a connected city involves the creation of an ecosystem which encourages the use and development of technology in all aspects of life, promotes innovation, and where the citizens can develop and acquire skills to actively participate in and benefit from the new services and opportunities. The salient features of this roadmap are summarized below.
1. Develop an ecosystem: One of the most important steps to transforming into a connected city is to develop an ecosystem where the fundamental building blocks find a symbiotic environment to develop and mature. This ecosystem includes all aspects of a city including its economy, infrastructure, governance, and private lives of citizens. The development of the ecosystem should be aimed at creating synergies between producers and consumers of data, leading to innovative solutions and quicker adoption of disruptive technologies. The ecosystem should also cater to the infrastructure and manpower needs, for example, by providing educational facilities where the workforce is trained in areas related to the technologies involved. The government and its policies form another critical component of this ecosystem where laws, taxes, and strategic initiatives can be used to transform the economy, and develop new companies and services based on technological advancements.
2. Proof-of-concept projects: Singapore has already embarked on a number of pilot projects that seek to integrate data and computing driven technologies with public infrastructure and industries. Going forward, larger projects that involved whole communities would play a key role in the greater adoption of smart technologies. For example, such projects could involve the use of technologies to provide individualized notifications and communication from civic bodies on smart phones, projects involving recycling and environments, transportation system that solve the last mile problem etc. In addition to the scale, the diversity and number of projects are other factors to consider in the choice of projects. A large basket of projects not only hedges against unsuccessful projects, but also fosters a broad range of innovation that transforms the entire city.
3. A public-private partnership: In a city scale endeavor of transformation, there are multiple players and stakeholders, each with their unique requirements, perspectives, strengths, and contributions. To realize the vision of a connected city, government organizations inside the city have to partner with private players across the entire spectrum of industries and commercial entities, and engage with various sections of the society. Data sharing between these entities, for example, can enable a number of new services or enhance existing programs (such as data
from grocery stores to promote healthy eating, data from insurance companies to plan medical facilities) but requires a rethink of existing practices. Public-private partnerships may also be employed in the execution of projects and development of services. Such partnerships are necessary since government organizations often face challenges in adapting quickly to rapidly changing technical environments and may lack the technical capacity and financial resources (or be risk averse) to integrate technological innovations in their services.
4. Involvement of citizens: For connected cities to achieve their full potential, it is necessary that all stakeholders are committed to the vision, and this can be achieved by implementing citizen-centric solutions, demonstrating their benefits, and showing the feasibility of a connected city. A fundamental challenge for the transformation into a truly connected city is thus the active engagement of the citizens so that they feel involved in this transformation. The engagement with the citizens would likely involve outreach activities, and seeking their inputs during the planning and execution process. The use of communication tools and media outlets, as well as forums for information exchange are other means to achieve the desired buy-in of the citizens, and promote dialogue and civic participation. Citizens may also be engaged as stakeholders by developing collaborative models and platforms where citizens are involved in the co-creation and co-production of solutions.
5. Quantifying connectivity: As Singapore continues its journey towards a connected city, it is important to assess the progress and its impact on the lives of its citizens. A formal framework for measuring the city progress as a connected city serves to provide an objective evaluation of the impact of various initiatives, their cost-effectiveness, increased transparency and accountability, and better understanding and engagement with the stakeholders’ requirements and objectives. Thus, a Balanced Scorecard may be developed for performance evaluation and management, and provide a quantitative link between the initiatives, their cost, and their outcomes to the objectives of a connected city. The scorecard will serve to provide a comprehensive view of the city’s overall performance as a connected city by integrating financial values with other key performance indicators that account for the satisfaction of stakeholder, and the mission and vision of a connected city.
A connected city has computing and information technologies embedded into its operations and environment, and is guided by the principle of using these technologies for sustainable and resilient economic growth, more effective civic services, and overall better quality of life for its citizens. The notion of connectivity arises from the ability to seamlessly collect, analyze, and exchange information by all stakeholders and residents to the city, and the close collaboration and cooperation across public and private entities. The city’s physical infrastructure, governance and services, and the social lives of its citizens are all touched by the infusion of new technologies in a connected city. However, technology is only one of the enablers of a connected city. The path to becoming a connected city requires continuous learning and adaptation from its citizens, and a close collaboration between the public and private entities. An ecosystem that fosters and provides the support system and institutional infrastructure for developing and implementing smart solutions to challenging and socially relevant problems, and allowing easy collaboration and feedback from users, is critical to developing a connected city.
[UN15] United Nations, Population Prospects: Key Findings and Advance Findings, 2015.
[KM12] Knox, Paul L., and Linda McCarthy, Urbanization: An Introduction to Urban Geography, 3rd ed. Boston: Pearson, 2012.
[TSSL17] Talari, Saber, Miadreza Shafie-khah, Pierluigi Siano, Vincenzo Loia, Aurelio Tommasetti, and João PS Catalão, “A Review of Smart Cities Based on the Internet of Things Concept,” Energies, vol. 10, no. 4 (2017): 421.
[IDB16] Inter-American Development Bank, International Case Studies of Smart Cities: Songdo, Republic of Korea, June 2016.
[Kit16] City of Kitchener, Digital Kitchener Strategy, 2016.